INSTITUTE OF ECONOMICS

RUSSIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

Main Publications Working Papers

Working Papers (published since 2018)

2020

  • Shmelyov B.A. Russia–Ukraine: partnership or confrontation?– Moscow: Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2020. – 46 р.

The paper is dedicated to the study the reasons of the confrontation between Russia and Ukraine, the features of the formation of the Ukrainian national idea and its impact on the internal and foreign policy of the country. The geopolitical interests of the both states and the influence of them on the mutual relations are analyzed. The author makes prognosis of the perspectives of Russian-Ukrainian relations suggests recommendations for the Russian foreign policy towards Ukraine.

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  • Social incentives and barriers to inter-state integration (European and post-Soviet experience). / Eds. L.B.Vardomskiy, T.V.Sokolova. – Moscow: Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2020. – 48 р.

The report provides a comparative analysis of the social aspects of European and Eurasian integration. Social factors played an important role in determining the integration choice of the Central and South-Eastern European countries as well as EAEU countries and its implementation. In turn, participation in thе integration project contributed to the convergence of social indicators of the participating countries. Within the EU, through the creation of appropriate institutions, supranational regulation of the social sphere is being strengthened and a single social area is being formed on this basis. The EAEU countries are building separate elements of this area on an interstate basis, in particular, the unified labor market. The study shows the growing role of the social component in the integration processes in the EU and the EAEU. There are differences in the approaches of these integration associations to overcoming the consequences of the coronavirus pandemia.

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  • Spatial development of the Russian economy: patterns and state regulation – Moscow: Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2020. – 99 p.

The report examines the formation of theoretical and methodological foundations of the state regulation of spatial development of the Russian economy and its positioning in the system of strategic planning. The report contains the substantiation of the key role of the state policy of regional development as an institutional and instrumental basis for strategizing the spatial development of the economy. The paper provides the development of ideas concerning the main principles, priorities, institutions and instruments of state policy of regional development. The paper describes the relationship between goals and tools of the state policy of regional development and the improvement of the economic and legal foundations of federal relations and the implementation of the requirements of economic security of the Russian Federation.

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  • Orekhovsky P.A. Socialism and the Left Utopia in the XXI Century (C. Crouch, T. Piketty, N. Srnicek, A. Williams and others). – Moscow: Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2020. – 50 р.

Socialism and the system of leftist views — is a contradictory and difficult to define concept. By the conventional criteria of left-wing views in the XXI century two requirements are egalitarianism and high government spending to support the public sector. In accordance with this, the report discusses works related to the requirement to return to the concept of a welfare state and progressive taxation. A separate section is devoted to the Baumol "price disease". This system of belief is combined with the left in accordance with the concept of market failures and a demand for growing subsidies to sectors prone to "price illness". In addition, the report presents the views of "post-capitalists" in their pessimistic (networked society) and optimistic (end of the labor market, transition to a classless capitalist society) versions. An attempt was defined to the strengths and weaknesses of the concepts under consider-ation, as well as the likelihood of the implementation of certain socialist scenarios in the future. The assessment was carried out from the standpoint of ensuring the conditions for future economic growth. The criterion of falsification according to K. Popper was ignored as not instrumental (inapplicable) to economic concepts, where it is impossible to separate the "ideological" premises from the "objective" reality. According to the author, without taking into account the possibilities of a radical change in current trends, for most modern national economies, the scenario of social regression and transition to negative sovereignty seems most real.

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  • Toloraya Georgy D., Korgun Irina A., Gorbacheva Valeriya O. Sanctions against DPRK: consequences and lessons. – Moscow: Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2020. – 46 р.

After the adoption by the UN Security Council of a tough sanctions package in December 2017, sanctions began to be perceived as a central element of political influence on the DPRK and as an important topic in the diplomatic process. Multiple cases of violation of sanctions have been recorded (illegal export-import transactions, embargo evasion, financial transactions, IT operations), which practically negates the effect of sanctions as a political tool. Nevertheless, they have serious humanitarian consequences for the country, especially for the vulnerable part of the population. The mechanism of the negative impact of sanctions includes deprivation of income, blocking access to goods, damage to food production and health care, and deepening inequality. Sanctions also make it difficult to provide assistance to DPRK. All this makes the DPRK leadership regard the actors, supporting the sanctions, as hostile and become skeptical of dialogue with their opponents.

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  • Kheyfets B.A. What route will Russia take along one difficult Chinese path. – Moscow: Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2020. – 62 р.

The report analyzes the implications for Russia from the implementation of the Chinese project One Belt – One Road (OBOR), which has become the largest global geo-economic project in the world economy. The report shows the positive results of the implementation of the OBOR, as well as the problems that have appeared. Particular attention was paid to the debt trap, which includes countries participating in the project that have taken Chinese loans. It shows the evolution of the economic relations between Russia and China and the new challenges for Russia in connection with the Chinese expansion in the framework of the OBOR. At the same time, China is rapidly turning into a technological superpower, which requires Russia to develop a flexible strategy for the development of cooperation, where economic and technological considerations are closely aligned with national security interests. The benefits and advantages for Russia from participation in the most important area of the OBOR – the Digital Silk Road, are shown.

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  • A. Vernikov. The concept of institutional traps: An attempt of application to the analysis of a new institution. – Moscow: Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2020. – 43 p.

The paper follows up on the concept of institutional traps in the process of institutional change. Traps are inefficient yet stable norms of behavior [Polterovich, 1999]. I take the case of deposit insurance in Russia and the resulting economic relations to operationalize the concept. The main finding is that deposit guaranteeing sets up an institutional trap by encouraging opportunistic behavior of banks and depositors that generates high social cost. Statistical data on banking and deposit insurance supports the author’s deliberations. The system of deposit protection reinforces itself and evolves in the direction of further risk-shifting from households to the government. No exit from the institutional trap is in sight because the society still does not perceive deposit insurance as a trap and deems it to have no alternative.

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2019

  • S.V. Kozlova, S.A. Bratchenko, P.S. Zvyagintsev. State property administration in modern Russia: evolution of concepts, tools, mechanisms. – Moscow: Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2019. – 60 р.

Thе report presents results of an investigation of the evolution of conceptual approaches, tools and mechanisms of state property administration in modern Russia in order to identify factors that contribute to or, conversely, impede the improvement of the quality of state property administration. The report shows that the absolutization of the role of the privatization institution did not lead to the Russian economy development. On the contrary it led to a number of current negative phenomena. The state program of the Russian Federation «Federal property administration» as a tool of public administration is assessed, the essence of the evolution of the goals, structure and indicators of the program is identified. As a part of methodological analysis of institutional constraints in the state property administration, some reasons for the low efficiency of state property management are investigated. The authors reveal the irrelevance of the simplified "market" understanding of the state organizations efficiency, when the state organizations efficiency criterion is equated with the criterion of efficiency of a private company and is reduced to profitability. The report shows that the recommendations to increase the profitability for all state organizations are not only incorrect, but in some cases they also do not meet the interests of the state. The report presents some proposals to the currently discussed draft law «On state and municipal property».

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  • E.M. Buchwald, A.V. Kolchugina. Small and monocompany towns in the spatial development strategy of the Russian Federation. / O.N. Valentik (ed.). – Moscow: Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2019. – 44 р.

The report examines the issues of spatial development strategy of Russia, related to the development of such a category of settlements as small and monocompany (monoprofile) towns of Russia. The report disputes with the hypothesis about the exceptional role of the largest megalopolises in increasing national competi-tiveness and their priority importance of megalopolises as perspective "points of growth" of the economy of Russia and its regions. The authors prove the idea that a balanced spatial development as one of the key principles of the regional policy of the state requires special goal-oriented measures of support to small and monocompany towns with an emphasis on the restoration of their economic and innovative potential and as well on the creating the conditions and incentives for their "self-development". The attention is focused on the ensuring federal-regional cooperation in solving urgent problems of small and monocompany towns of the country and the inclusion of this problem in the priority goals of territorial and sectoral strategies, fixed in the national projects of the Russian Federation.

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  • Slavinskaya O.A. About the theory and methodology of public expenditure. – Moscow: Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2019. – 64 р.

This study is devoted to the analysis of the evolution of the interpretation in the history of economic thought of the last centuries of such an economic category as public finance, and in particular public expenditure. This paper presents an analysis of the following economic schools: Cameralism, German tradition and Italian tradition of public finance, the theory of merit goods, the theory of patronized goods. On the basis of the analyzed Baumol’s theory and the obtained results of the multifactor econometric model of public expenditures, the methodology of determining the compensatory subsidy based on the definition of income deficit for the organizations of the humanitarian sector, taking into account the specifics of cultural, scientific and educational sectors, was developed and proposed. As a result of the calculations made on the basis of the actual data, it was revealed that the theatrical organizations in some regions of the Russian Federation were underfunded, which leads to an over-inflationary increase in ticket prices.

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  • Kislitsyna O., Chubarova T. A comprehensive evaluation of health care system in Russia: the experience of composite index building. – Moscow: Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2019. – 69 p.

Based on an analysis of the literature, extensive statistical data and the results of sociological studies, the report proposed and tested methodology for measuring of the health care system performance in Russia both throughout the country as a whole and in the regional context. The methodology is based on the construction of a composite index - an integrated indicator that aggregates 3 main aspects of the health care system (availability, quality and effectiveness). Despite the registered limitations, this methodology allows to provide decision-makers with generalized information about the state of the healthcare system, as well as to raise public awareness about the problems of the industry.

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  • Muzychuk V.Yu. Government Failures in the Cultural Sector: – M.: Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2019. – 58 р.

This paper focuses on government failures in the arts and culture. The paper considers another variety of government failures such as "substitution of goals". This is a situation in which there is a substitution of officially declared goals with hidden goal-setting, aimed to implement the so-called unpopular managerial decisions or such managerial decisions for which you can report to authorities (not to society!). A suitable illustration for this variety of government failures is the reform of the public sector through the transformations in the cultural sphere. In the cultural sector government failures are added to market failures, due to the multiplier effect and the lack of developed and capable civil society institutions lead to serious losses in public welfare.

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  • Lobanov Mikhail M. The problems of development of Serbia: how to stay "on the crest of a new wave" of economic growth? – Moscow: Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2019. – 53 p.

Given study deals with the features of the current stage of socio-economic development of the Republic of Serbia, and its main aim is to single out internal and external factors that limit the potential for sustainable economic growth and affect the indicators of macroeconomic balance. The report examines the causes and consequences of the post-crisis transformation of the institutional environment, and also analyzes the dynamics of a wide range of socio-economic indicators, which allows defining the contours of the new economic paradigm.

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  • Pliskevich N.M. Paternalism and the processes of post-socialist transformation. – Moscow: Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2019. – 45 p.

This report attempts to explain why archaic forms of paternalistic relations rather than paternalistic practices typical of modern developed countries dominate in Russia in the 21st century. It shows that the reasons for this are to be found in the archaic nature of the entire institutional structure of Russian society as a system of "power-property". The way out of this system is complicated by "institutional scars," which arose as a result of previous mobilization-type breakthroughs to modernize society. Moreover, the report shows that paternalism is an organic part of relations in any society. It is based either on collectivism "from above," carried out through large, primarily state structures, or on collectivism "from below," relying on the individual initiative of citizens and various structures of civil society. A healthy society finds an organic combination of these two forms of paternalism. However, when there is a bundle "power-property," the authorities strive for monopoly control over all social processes, including paternalism. As a result, horizontal public relations are sharply weakened, which leads to the atomization of society. And the hierarchy of the system itself creates the ground for aggressive adaptive individualism. At the same time, the authorities use paternalism as a mechanism to strengthen their connection with society. This crucial cohesion for the authorities is intended to strengthen political institutions, but in the state with suppressed property relations the political institutions are deformed. As a result, the state and related forms of paternalism fall under an overwhelming burden, and this further weakens the entire institutional structure.

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  • Slutskin L.N. Modeling Causal Dependencies in Economics. – Moscow: Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2019. – 42 p.

It is well known that causal relations in the social sciences including economics have stochastic nature. Unlike natural sciences it is hardly possible to reproduce economic observations under the same conditions or isolate effects of the action of one factor upon the other from the rest. On the surface this fact should be the cause of considerable difficulties on the way of establishing statistically testable causal relations between two economic phenomena. We show how econometricians have step by step overcome this problem beginning with works of Fisher and Neyman and ending with the latest achievements in the field by Rubin, Pearl, Scholkopf and their colleagues. In the presentation the issues related to applications of statistical causality theory to economics are also considered. Particularly, the concept of intervention (operator "do") invented by Judea Pearl will be systematically studied. We show how interventions may be effectively used to calculate synergetic effects appearing in the architecture of Bayesian network.

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  • Yakovlev A.Y. Management institutions and mechanisms for Russian companies with state participation. – Moscow: Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2019. – 42 p.

The report is first within three-year planed research which the aim of the elaboration of methodological and institutional approaches to the quality improvement of management of companies with state participation in Russian economy. The report contains an analysis of the methodological and practical aspects of management of companies with state participation in Russia through the study of their current state, problems of functioning, formed management institutions and mechanisms. The relevance of this study is due to increase of activity efficiency of companies with state participation and lack of a comprehensive study that reveals the functioning of institutions and mechanisms for management of companies (joint-stock companies and limited liability companies) whose shares are in federal property and belong to the subjects of the federation (Russian regions).

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  • Kheyfets Boris A. How to modernize the Eurasian Economic Union – Moscow: Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2019. – 45 p.

The report analyzes the five-year period for the implementation of the Treaty on the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) and highlights the main problems of its development at the present stage. Among them, external pressure on the EAEU from major economic agents (China, USA) and regional economic partnerships (European Union), which leads to erosion of the Eurasian integration processes. Internal disintegration factors are the lack of tangible progress in the formation of common sectoral markets, the rapid growth of new non-tariff barriers and exceptions to the general rules of trade, the increase in the number of trade and currency conflicts. A serious problem is the weakening of the potential of Russia as a driver of economic integration in the EAEU. In this regard, the report raises the question of a significant adjustment of the model of integration in the EAEU. New initiatives and actions are proposed, which should give a tangible effect on the existence of the EAEU for the population and business.

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  • Sheynin Eduard Ya. Investment Process in Central and Eastern Europe – Moscow: Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2019. – 48 p.

Actuality of research is determined by the fact that difficult tasks of ensuring sustainable economic growth face the Central and Eastern European countries. Their solution to no small degree depends on the rate of increase of capital investment, the higher investment rates. In the paper the features of investment process and investment policy of the Central and Eastern European countries in conditions of geopolitical situation on the European continent have been investigated. The scientific analysis of recourse possibilities as well as of conditions for development of investment process in the region countries and the sources, on which it leans has been carried out; the role of investment in the economic growth has been evaluated. The place of foreign investment in the economy has been shown. In the study of specificities of investment process in the Central and Eastern European countries analytical and statistical materials have been used, and the conclusions have been formulated.

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  • Orekhovsky P.A. Cognitive Structures and Russian Reforms. – Moscow: Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2019. – 47 p.

The structure of the cognitiveness is a philosophical category, a concept related to a paradigm and / or an episteme. Its application allows us to characterize the ways in which economic reality is perceived by both economic schools and the community of economists as a whole. Structures of the cognitiveness change from revolution to stagnation, which is fixed in changes in colloquial practices (discourses). That contradicts the idea of a cumulative growth of economic knowledge. Understanding the causes, progress and results of economic reforms in the categories of the cognitiveness has its advantages and disadvantages. The paper presents examples of such an approach as applied to the analysis of the transition of the Russian health care system to insurance medicine, retrospectives of the causes and course of the collapse of the USSR, modern reforms in Russian education and science. The pluralism of the postmodern era’s realities is demonstrated, a combination of symbolic order and fantasy, both in relation to reform projects (insurance medicine, education reform) and in the past (the economic version of the collapse of the Soviet oil empire against the political crisis in a socialist country).

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  • Orlik I., Knyazev Yu. Political and Economic Differentiation of Central-Eastern Europe. – Moscow: Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2019. – 47 p.

The report discloses the processes of political and economic differentiation among countries of Central-Eastern Europe, peculiarities of their internal and external policy, growing contradictions within the European Union. On the background of new trends in the European Union policy under changing geopolitical situation and breaking general international stability the authors reveal different positions of CEE States upon a number of acute foreign policy problems. The divergence of main macroeconomic indexes which testify maintaining heterogeneity of this region countries from social-economic and political standpoint is showed The overall analyses of new experts appraisements and statistics as well as conclusions and recommendations for Russia foreign policy makes the research actual.

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  • Kapelyushnikov R.I. Population Aging Phenomenon: Economic Effects. – Moscow: Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2019. – 50 p.

Population aging is a process that has already embraced most of the countries of the world and that with acceleration will go on during the whole of the 21st century. The aim of the work is to present the widest possible range of economic effects, caused by the aging of the population, including those not directly related to the state policy. It describes the basic mechanism of interaction between demographic and macroeconomic variables, showing how population aging is related to such key factors as per capita consumption, employment, productivity and capital-labor ratio, wages and income from capital, investments and savings. Additionally, the impact of population aging on labor supply, human capital accumulation, technological progress, real percentage (return on capital), and inflation is analyzed.

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  • Knyazev Yu. Individualism and Collectivism in Contemporary Economy. – Moscow: Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2019. – 45 p.

The report exposes the author’s views upon correlation between individualism and collectivism in contemporary economy. The point of departure is recognition of human person dual nature which combines two sources – individualism and collectivism. After a short survey of some economists’ views showing evolution in comprehension of methodological individualism and this fundamental principle vulnerability, next parts characterize individual and social interests as well as private and public goods. Special attention is paid to the role of State as the most important institution which greatly influences on market and leads to appearance of social regulated market economy existing in most developed and civilized countries. The report’s final part lights the way for proving of necessity and possibility of complex planning in Russian market economy. There are some conclusions related to possible ways of renewal of economics due to the author’s understanding of methodological dualism.

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  • Koshovets O.B. Making Progress Gorizontally: Economics Between Construction of Reality and Techno-Science. – Moscow: Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2019. – 47 p.

Within the broader context of the discussion on where modern economics is moving I consider the progress of economic knowledge (modeling) and particularly address the recent attempt of Dany Rodrik to promote the idea that the discipline makes progress horizontally. Proceeding from the thesis that “horizontal progress” is rather an attempt to describe the current practice of economic knowledge producing, and to legitimate it as goals of economics development in academic and public discourses, I discuss the implicit assumptions underlying this idea, and trajectory of economic knowledge advance it suggests. Further I analyze important changes in the practice of economic knowledge production and the reception of these changes by economists. It can be described as a fundamental shift from science, theory and explanation of reality to craft, tools and the construction of reality. Then I examine methodically the key ontological and epistemological features of economic knowledge, which compel economics to develop extensively following the path of “economic imperialism”. In conclusion, I raise the questions of whether economics is a science from the standpoint of epistemology or it is a more complex trans-epistemic phenomenon, and what is crucial for its current development specifically in the context of the fundamental transformation that science as an “epistemological enterprise” and social institution is undergoing.

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2018

  • Vardomsky L.B., Turaeva M.O. Development of the Post-Soviet Transport Corridors in Terms of Contemporary Geopolitical and Economic Challenges – Moscow: Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2018. – 66 p.

The report deals with the international transport corridors (ITC) as the distinctive characteristic of regionalization and globalization of the world economy. The factors of ITC’s formation in the post-soviet space are analyzed. A special emphasis has made on transcontinental transit routes’ development and their in the Eurasian integration. As well, China’s role in the development of the EEU countries’ transit position is studied. Particular attention paid to the ITC and transit in terms of Russia’s economic development.

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  • Glinkina S.P.,Kulikova N.V., Turayeva M.O., Golubkin A.V., Yakovlev A.A. The China Factor in the Development of the Russian "Neighborhood Belt": Lessons for Russia – Moscow: Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2018. – 66 p.

This report examines traditional and new tools that are increasingly being used by the People’s Republic of China in the countries of the Russian neighborhood belt to promote the large-scale "One Belt - One Road" integration initiative. The effects of Chinese economic expansion in the post-socialist countries of Central Asia and Central- Eastern Europe are estimated. Based on the analysis, recommendations are given on improving the forms and mechanisms of cooperation between Russia and China and with the countries of the "neighborhood belt", taking into account the growth of the Chinese economic presence in the region.

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  • Odintsova A., Valentik O. Formation of the Strategic Planning System in the Municipal Link of Public Government – Moscow: Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2018. – 40 p.

The report focuses on the need of organic inclusion of municipal government into the unified hierarchy of strategic planning in the country. Acting versions of the 131st Federal law “On general principles of organization of local self-government” and the 172d Federal law “On strategic planning” don’t provide clear framework for the solution of this task. Besides, the practical inclusion of municipal government into the unified hierarchy of strategic planning meets serious economic obstacles, the main of which is connected with the negative situation in the system of local finance. The paper proves the necessity of systemic approach to solving problems, related to the integration of municipal government into the unified vertical of strategic planning in the country on the basis of legal innovations in the legislation on strategic planning and local self-government as well as measures towards strengthening the fiscal basis of Russian local self-government.

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  • Vernikov A. Malfunction of an Imported Institution: The Case of Deposit Insurance in Russia – Moscow: Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2018. – 44 p.

The paper explores the reasons why the imported institution of deposit insurance (DI) malfunctions in Russia. Its malfunction goes beyond the well-studied phenomenon of moral hazard. One possible reason is misuse of institution by its creators and/or its capture by interested parties. Another possibility is the poor timing of DI implementation, prior to a revamp of the banking industry. The third possible reason is that DI was a misfit in the Russian institutional setup. I regard the local DI system as in institutional trap. Institutions of paternalism and redistribution need to be complemented by market discipline, self-regulation and personal responsibility.

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  • Where is Current Economics Moving? – Moscow: Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2018. – 55 p.

This publication includes two reports on a general theme: "Where is current economics moving?". In R. Kape liushnikov's paper "On current state of economics: subjective semi-sociological observations" recent sociological and epistemological trends in the evolution of economics as a scientific enterprise and as a social institution are analyzed and its current state and further perspectives are trying to evaluate. A. Libman's paper "Empirical research in the economy: "revolution of authenticity?” analyzes the main changes in the practice of empirical economic research of the last decades – the so-called “credibility revolution" in econometrics.

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  • Voyekov M.I., Gorodetsky A.E., Grinberg R.S. The Economic Nature of the State a New Perspective – Moscow: Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2018. – 54 p.

The report discusses the problems of the evolution of the place and role of the state in the market economy. The rooting of the state into the economic life of the society over the past hundred years was impetuous. Important is the question of what are the costs of increasing the volume of state activity and to what extent society is ready to put up with them. Naturally, there is a need to develop a new theory of state participation in the economy of contemporary society. And this purpose, which was set for itself by The Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences (the state assignment on the subject "The Economic Theory of the Contemporary State"), is served by the following text below. The most important thesis of the report is the provision on the transformation of the contemporary state from the subject of market space, in fact, to its organizer (playmaker), which puts forward special requirements for the theory, which is being developed. At the same time, an interdisciplinary approach to the study of the issue is used (philosophy, sociology, political science, psychology, culturology, ets.).

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  • Kheyfets Boris A. Metamorphosis of Economic Globalization – Moscow: Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2018. – 41 p.

The paper considers the features of a new stage of globalization. It is shown that the slowing down of globalization processes is temporary, it concerns traditional assets, while the interstate flows of new assets triggered by the 4th industrial revolution are fundamentally strengthened. The increased tendencies towards regionalization and transregionalization, which stimulate all states to remove barriers to trade and investment and improve the investment climate, is not an obstacle to globalization. A powerful driver of the modern stage of globalization is informal globalization, or “globalization from below,” which is connected with the activity of citizens. The number of foreign tourist trips, studying and working abroad, and purchases abroad via the Internet is growing. Unlike the previous stage of globalization of production, this will be a stage of globalization of consumption, when the common economic spaces will gradually be formed without state borders and without the participation of supranational formal institutions.

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