Main Publications Working Papers

Working Papers (published since 2018)


  • Russia's Neighboring Countries During the Sanctions War / Ed. by L.B. Vardomsky, I.A. Korgun, N.V. Kulikova, A.G. Pylin. Moscow: Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2022. 118 pp.

At present, economic sanctions have become an integral element of international relations and an important factor in economic transformations at the level of countries, their alliances and the world as a whole. The authors examine how Western sanctions affect the economies of Russia's neighbors and their trade and economic relations with Russia. Among other things, they identify these countries' attitudes towards the West's sanctions against Russia, examine the adjustment of trade flows to the imposed restrictions and the formation of new supply chains involving the CIS countries, and assess the impact of sanctions on national economies and regional integration processes with Russia's participation. The results of the study suggest that the anti-Russian sanctions aimed at maintaining the privileged position of Western countries in the global economy have at this stage worked against their initiators and to a certain extent accelerated the world's movement towards a polycentric order.

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  • Dorzhieva V.V., Sorokina N.Yu., Belyaevskaya-Plotnik L.A., Volkova N.N., Romanyuk E.I. Spatial Aspects of Developing Science, Technology and Innovation in Russia. Moscow: Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2022. 94 p.

The authors examine the spatial aspects of scientific and technological progress and innovative development of the Russian Federation. They propose their own methodology for rating the country’s regions according to their scientific and technological development, taking into account periodic statistical reports and a system of spatial factors determining the formation of an innovative economy. Using the example of the top most innovatively active regions, the authors assess the effectiveness of R&D activities, which brings them to a conclusion that a differentiated state regional policy with regard to science, technology and innovation should be implemented across the country, including measures that provide conditions for actualizing the accumulated innovative potential of the leading regions.

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  • Kheyfets B.A. New Stage of Deoffshorization of the Global Economy and Russian realities. Moscow: Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2022. 64 p.

The Report considers impact on the world economy development and deoffshorization policy of the global corporate minimum tax (GCMT), agreed in October 2021. Theoretical concept in author’s interpretation of GCMT is given and suggested fundamental difference from other concepts, which are aimed at regulating only cross-border financial transactions (Tobin tax). The new concept focuses on taxation of cross-border economic activity itself, which relates to the current level of global digitalization and allows multinational companies to earn significant income in foreign markets, without their physical presence there and avoid taxation in the original jurisdiction. Development stages of the international deoffshorization policy are highlighted in report, where the fourth stage is designated as "Global deoffshorization 4.0". The results of the deoffshorization policy in Russia and its prospects in the new geopolitical reality that has developed after February 24, 2022, are assessed.

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  • Ananyin O.I. The genesis of economic science contextualised in the history of science. Moscow: Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2021. 52 p.

The paper considers transformation of pre-scientific economic knowledge into scientific knowledge. Through analysis of the general scientific environment characteristic of the era of scientific revolution in Western Europe in XVII-XVIII centuries, its heterogeneity, dynamism, and impact on economic thought of that period are shown. The shaping of economics as a science is demonstrated to proceed through development of five alternative paradigms of including economic knowledge into the system of science, while the consequent pattern of economic science was determined by the Cartesian-Newtonian paradigm presented in the treatise of Richard Cantillon.

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  • Bukhwald E.M., Valentik O.N., Kolchugina A.V., Odintsova A.V. To the new "Fundamentals of state policy regarding the development of local self-government". Moscow: Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2021. 43 p.

The report examines the main problems related to the preparation of such a document as ““Fundamentals of state policy regarding the development of local self-government“, which was initiated by the President of the Russian Federation Vladimir Putin at the beginning of 2020. The paper considers the continuity of this initiative in comparison with a similar document adopted in 1999. The range of problems related to the development of Russian local self-government, both solved and unsolved during the past quarter of the century, is outlined. In formulating the key requirements for the new document, priority is given to strengthening the economic and legal foundations of local self-government, its institutional diversity, and promoting the principles of civil society in local self-government. A special emphasis is placed on the problems of strategic planning at the municipal level of government, as well as on various ways of more active use of the potential of inter-municipal cooperation.

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  • Pavlenko Yu.G. The political economy of the welfare state in the context of state paternalism. Moscow: Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2021. 38 p.

The report examines the problems of the modern welfare state, its current status and dynamics of development, as well as the mechanisms of its inhibition. It formulates the reproductive foundations of the welfare state associated with the knowledge economy and the evolution of production relations. The state of scientific potential, social and humanitarian aspects of the economy are analyzed employing the category of social citizenship. The conclusion about the welfare state as a stable social phenomenon within the framework of state paternalism is substantiated. The classification of functioning models of the welfare state and a conceptual and analytical approach based on associating the forms of power relations with the models of welfare state are proposed. The prospects of the modern welfare state are associated with the progressive development of the social democratic model, with the accumulation of human potential and with the activity of civil society.

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  • Regional Integration in East Asia: trends, goals and future tasks (cases of China, Republic of Korea and Vietnam) / Ex. ed. I.A. Korgun, A.A. Yakovlev, V.O. Gorbacheva, K.H. Nguen. Moscow: Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2021. 54 p.

This report investigates regional integration strategies of three East Asian countries – China, Republic of Korea and Vietnam. It particularly pays attention to major unfolding tendencies and factors that influence government choices regarding participation in certain trade agreements. Authors point out that the number one priority for East Asian states is to secure achievement of their development goals through reduction of barriers to trade. However, mounting geopolitical challenges especially in the face of the US-China strategic rivalry adds a new dimension to regional integration dynamics. Participation of countries in China-centric RCEP and/or US allies-led CPTTP is often linked to geopolitical considerations on how to balance their strategic and development priorities. As competition between China and the US intensifies, those two may come into conflict.

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  • Kubishin E.S., Sedlov A.P., Sobolev E.N., Soboleva I.V. The labour during the pandemic / I.V. Soboleva (ed.). Moscow: Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2021. 48 p.

Based on official statistics and independent sociological surveys, the report traces trends in the development of Russian labour market during the pandemic crisis: the dynamics of employment, open and latent unemployment, and incomes of the population. It is shown that from the position of macroeconomic proportions, the labor sphere as a whole is quite successful in dealing with the challenges of the crisis. At the same time, the formation of new trends of vulnerability has aggravated the painful perception of the crisis and increased the risks of depreciation and degradation of human capital in the affected economic activities. New potential and risks of expanding the sphere of informal labor relations were identified. The controversial socio-economic consequences of changes in labor migration flows were analyzed. The priority directions of state policy that can additionally stimulate the impulse given by the pandemic to modernize employment and increase real labor incomes of the population were substantiated.

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  • Vilenskiy A.V, Domnina I.N., Mayevskaya L.I. Small business in the regions of Russia: before and after the pandemic. Moscow: Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2021. 47 p.

The research deals with the analysis of the current situation and prospects of the spatial development of Russian small and medium-sized enterprises in the conditions of the ongoing coronavirus crisis. The dynamics of small and medium-sized businesses in the Russian regions have been evaluated. Measures and programs of anti-crisis support for small businesses, mainly at the regional level, have been analyzed. Besides that, the possible post-crisis prospects for the development of small and medium Russian enterprises, as well as strategic changes in the system of the state support have been evaluated.

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  • Post-Soviet countries in the processes of international regionalization in 2010–2020: expectations, results, new trends / L.B. Vardomsky (ed.). Moscow: Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2021. 70 p.

The purpose of this working paper is to measure the impact of preferential regimes of foreign trade on its development in certain post-Soviet countries; to determine how different ways of regionalization reflect the nature of the economic and political influence of competing forces in the post-Soviet area; to assess the effects of the participation of post-Soviet countries in the processes of international regionalization and to identify the main foreign economic and socio-economic consequences of the use of existing models of regionalization.

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  • Orekhovsky P.A. State Control over Prices in the USSR: the Role of the “Value” Discourse. Moscow: Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2021. 45 p.

The wholesale price reform in 1967 in the USSR presupposed the leveling of sectoral profitability. The Soviet leadership did not proceed to the liberalization of prices for aboveplanned products, as was done in 1978 in the China. In retrospective, price liberalization seems to be the most important and necessary part of the reforms, but it was abandoned. The widespread explanation – the ideological blindness and dogmatism of the Soviet leadership and economists, conditioned by the internal specifics of the totalitarian system – seems unsatisfactory. The paper puts forward a hypothesis about the confidence of Soviet scientists in the possibility of an objective understanding of the patterns of price formation based on value. The characteristics of two authoritative, dominant discourses at that time are given: political economists of socialism and economists-mathematicians (Systems of optimal functioning of the economy). The decisive role of cognitive structures in maintaining administrative control over prices up to 1991 is substantiated. The discourse of value played a key role in the preparation of measures to improve the economic mechanism and the next cycle of changes in wholesale prices in 1979. Realistic discourses and related structures of cognition retain their significance in modern domestic economic science and practice.

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  • Rubinstein A.Y., Burakov N.A. The evolution of the paternalistic state: public choice and scientometrics. Moscow: Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2021. 48 р.

The paper presents the results of sociological study of public opinion in the context of reforming science. The replacement of public choice by authoritarian decision and adoption of the Law on the Russian Academy of Sciences virtually eliminated academic freedoms and reinforced government interference in scientific life, at the same time causing escalation of Scientometrics. Having analyzed the dependence of incentive remuneration on the number of publications and their citations, the authors concluded that there was an "administrative failure" of the paternalistic state, which is evidence of a "failure of society", when infantile institutions of civil society were unable to provide a democratic procedure of choosing the aims of domestic science development. The results of a sociological survey conducted in the year 2020 show that the RSCI indicators do not inspire confidence in most economists. The report also presents a critical analysis of scientometric indicators used in Scopus, including three well-known metrics: CiteScore, SNIP, SCImago (SJR). A comparison of the algorithms used to calculate these metrics leads to the general conclusion that the citation fact alone does not contain any information on the scientific level of journals. The paper discusses an alternative to ranking the journals, which is based not on the citation rate of publications, but on their qualitative assessments obtained on the basis of a survey of economists. One of the results of the study is the presented ranking of Russian economic journals.

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  • Bratchenko S.A. Quality of state governance: theoretical, methodological and institutional aspects. Moscow: Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2021. 55 p.

Achieving national goals and strategic objectives of social and economic development of Russia requires a radical improvement in the quality of state governance. But the scope of term "quality of state governance" is vaguely defined both in the scientific literature and in practice. This is one of the obstacles preventing effective transformation of state governance institutions. The paper is an attempt of investigation these urgent questions: to define the term of "quality of state governance" and to identify the main factors influencing it.

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  • Lenchuk E.B. Nine Uneasy Decades. Мoscow: IE RAS, 2020. 56 p.

In a report marking the 90th anniversary of the Institute of Economics, RAS, the author describes important events in its development and the difficult path of scientific research, associated with intention to analyze objectively the real problems of the country's socio-economic development and propose measures to overcome them. She focuses on the past ten years, outlining some results of fundamental research related to economic theory, economic policy, institutions of modern economy and innovative development, international economic and political problems, as well as the main tasks in the sphere of research and development to be solved by the Institute on the eve of its centenary.

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  • Dorzhieva V., Il’yina S. Financial Development Institutions as a Factor of Economic Structural Modernization. Moscow: Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2020. 65 p.

The authors explore the role of development financial institutions in the structural modernization of the Russian economy, their current state and ways to improve it in this context. They analyze publicly available data related to development institutions focusing on supporting innovation (VEB.RF, the Industrial Development Fund, MSP Corporation, MSP Bank, the Russian Venture Company, the Skolkovo Foundation, the Foundation for Assistance to Small Innovative Enterprises (FASIE)) and come to a conclusion that the existing combination of development institution has proved to be insufficiently effective and hardly relevant to the task of structural modernization.

In the context of Russia’s growing macroeconomic instability at the face of economic shocks caused by the COVID-19 pandemic and the situation in global energy markets, development institutions became less efficient, which inspired the government to close down or merge some of them, include them into a government planning scheme, aim at achieving respective top-priority goals of socio-economic development and eliminate the overlapping of their functions with those of commercial companies. The authors analyze a scenario of a new reform and modernization of the system of financial development institutions and suggest some steps to improve their performance.

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  • Sukharev O. Structural and Technological Dynamics of Russian Economy. Moscow: Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2020. 53 p.

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the structural dynamics of the Russian economy and to identify its characteristics and main determinants for the period under review in order to find out how elements of the economic structure influence economic growth.

The author uses structural analysis to characterize GDP components according to costs and revenues, determining their contribution to economic growth. In addition to that, he succeeds in assessing the influence of the sectoral structure on economic dynamics. The research results in a pattern of the Russian economy’s structural dynamics, the main conclusion being that forming a new model of economic growth is possible through structural changes and a corresponding structural policy, providing for resource movement between sectors (manufacturing, extraction of raw materials, transactions).

According to the author, increasing investment as an important factor of growth would be a partial solution without simultaneously solving a task of distributing it between new and old technologies, with a general trend of making the economy as a whole and its sectors more technology-based. It would be necessary to influence sensitivity of various types of activities to investment in new and old technologies, which would imply new requirements for the economic policy, orienting it towards greater specification and analytical relevance with due regard to structural dynamics of GDP and technologies. The author proves that the ratio between financial and non-financial investment influences economic dynamics.

The paper focuses on Russian economy’s structural dynamics highlighting certain indicators of systemic importance, as well as assessment of the influence of investment structure on the level of technological development. It allows for a wider range of applicability of structural analysis while designing measures of economic policy (both macroeconomic and industrial and technological), having specified a general method for its implementation. The author comes up with conclusions about forming a strategy for Russia’s economic development and economic growth policy and formulates practically useful results obtained through calculations.

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  • Shmelyov B.A. Russia–Ukraine: partnership or confrontation? Moscow: Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2020. 46 р.

The paper is dedicated to the study the reasons of the confrontation between Russia and Ukraine, the features of the formation of the Ukrainian national idea and its impact on the internal and foreign policy of the country. The geopolitical interests of the both states and the influence of them on the mutual relations are analyzed. The author makes prognosis of the perspectives of Russian-Ukrainian relations suggests recommendations for the Russian foreign policy towards Ukraine.

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  • Social incentives and barriers to inter-state integration (European and post-Soviet experience). / Eds. L.B.Vardomskiy, T.V.Sokolova. Moscow: Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2020. 48 р.

The report provides a comparative analysis of the social aspects of European and Eurasian integration. Social factors played an important role in determining the integration choice of the Central and South-Eastern European countries as well as EAEU countries and its implementation. In turn, participation in thе integration project contributed to the convergence of social indicators of the participating countries. Within the EU, through the creation of appropriate institutions, supranational regulation of the social sphere is being strengthened and a single social area is being formed on this basis. The EAEU countries are building separate elements of this area on an interstate basis, in particular, the unified labor market. The study shows the growing role of the social component in the integration processes in the EU and the EAEU. There are differences in the approaches of these integration associations to overcoming the consequences of the coronavirus pandemia.

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  • Spatial development of the Russian economy: patterns and state regulation. Moscow: Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2020. 99 p.

The report examines the formation of theoretical and methodological foundations of the state regulation of spatial development of the Russian economy and its positioning in the system of strategic planning. The report contains the substantiation of the key role of the state policy of regional development as an institutional and instrumental basis for strategizing the spatial development of the economy. The paper provides the development of ideas concerning the main principles, priorities, institutions and instruments of state policy of regional development. The paper describes the relationship between goals and tools of the state policy of regional development and the improvement of the economic and legal foundations of federal relations and the implementation of the requirements of economic security of the Russian Federation.

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  • Orekhovsky P.A. Socialism and the Left Utopia in the XXI Century (C. Crouch, T. Piketty, N. Srnicek, A. Williams and others). Moscow: Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2020. 50 р.

Socialism and the system of leftist views — is a contradictory and difficult to define concept. By the conventional criteria of left-wing views in the XXI century two requirements are egalitarianism and high government spending to support the public sector. In accordance with this, the report discusses works related to the requirement to return to the concept of a welfare state and progressive taxation. A separate section is devoted to the Baumol "price disease". This system of belief is combined with the left in accordance with the concept of market failures and a demand for growing subsidies to sectors prone to "price illness". In addition, the report presents the views of "post-capitalists" in their pessimistic (networked society) and optimistic (end of the labor market, transition to a classless capitalist society) versions. An attempt was defined to the strengths and weaknesses of the concepts under consider-ation, as well as the likelihood of the implementation of certain socialist scenarios in the future. The assessment was carried out from the standpoint of ensuring the conditions for future economic growth. The criterion of falsification according to K. Popper was ignored as not instrumental (inapplicable) to economic concepts, where it is impossible to separate the "ideological" premises from the "objective" reality. According to the author, without taking into account the possibilities of a radical change in current trends, for most modern national economies, the scenario of social regression and transition to negative sovereignty seems most real.

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  • Toloraya Georgy D., Korgun Irina A., Gorbacheva Valeriya O. Sanctions against DPRK: consequences and lessons. Moscow: Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2020. 46 р.

After the adoption by the UN Security Council of a tough sanctions package in December 2017, sanctions began to be perceived as a central element of political influence on the DPRK and as an important topic in the diplomatic process. Multiple cases of violation of sanctions have been recorded (illegal export-import transactions, embargo evasion, financial transactions, IT operations), which practically negates the effect of sanctions as a political tool. Nevertheless, they have serious humanitarian consequences for the country, especially for the vulnerable part of the population. The mechanism of the negative impact of sanctions includes deprivation of income, blocking access to goods, damage to food production and health care, and deepening inequality. Sanctions also make it difficult to provide assistance to DPRK. All this makes the DPRK leadership regard the actors, supporting the sanctions, as hostile and become skeptical of dialogue with their opponents.

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  • Kheyfets B.A. What route will Russia take along one difficult Chinese path. Moscow: Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2020. 62 р.

The report analyzes the implications for Russia from the implementation of the Chinese project One Belt – One Road (OBOR), which has become the largest global geo-economic project in the world economy. The report shows the positive results of the implementation of the OBOR, as well as the problems that have appeared. Particular attention was paid to the debt trap, which includes countries participating in the project that have taken Chinese loans. It shows the evolution of the economic relations between Russia and China and the new challenges for Russia in connection with the Chinese expansion in the framework of the OBOR. At the same time, China is rapidly turning into a technological superpower, which requires Russia to develop a flexible strategy for the development of cooperation, where economic and technological considerations are closely aligned with national security interests. The benefits and advantages for Russia from participation in the most important area of the OBOR – the Digital Silk Road, are shown.

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  • S.V. Kozlova, S.A. Bratchenko, P.S. Zvyagintsev. State property administration in modern Russia: evolution of concepts, tools, mechanisms. Moscow: Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2019. 60 р.

Thе report presents results of an investigation of the evolution of conceptual approaches, tools and mechanisms of state property administration in modern Russia in order to identify factors that contribute to or, conversely, impede the improvement of the quality of state property administration. The report shows that the absolutization of the role of the privatization institution did not lead to the Russian economy development. On the contrary it led to a number of current negative phenomena. The state program of the Russian Federation «Federal property administration» as a tool of public administration is assessed, the essence of the evolution of the goals, structure and indicators of the program is identified. As a part of methodological analysis of institutional constraints in the state property administration, some reasons for the low efficiency of state property management are investigated. The authors reveal the irrelevance of the simplified "market" understanding of the state organizations efficiency, when the state organizations efficiency criterion is equated with the criterion of efficiency of a private company and is reduced to profitability. The report shows that the recommendations to increase the profitability for all state organizations are not only incorrect, but in some cases they also do not meet the interests of the state. The report presents some proposals to the currently discussed draft law «On state and municipal property».

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  • E.M. Buchwald, A.V. Kolchugina. Small and monocompany towns in the spatial development strategy of the Russian Federation. / O.N. Valentik (ed.). Moscow: Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2019. 44 р.

The report examines the issues of spatial development strategy of Russia, related to the development of such a category of settlements as small and monocompany (monoprofile) towns of Russia. The report disputes with the hypothesis about the exceptional role of the largest megalopolises in increasing national competi-tiveness and their priority importance of megalopolises as perspective "points of growth" of the economy of Russia and its regions. The authors prove the idea that a balanced spatial development as one of the key principles of the regional policy of the state requires special goal-oriented measures of support to small and monocompany towns with an emphasis on the restoration of their economic and innovative potential and as well on the creating the conditions and incentives for their "self-development". The attention is focused on the ensuring federal-regional cooperation in solving urgent problems of small and monocompany towns of the country and the inclusion of this problem in the priority goals of territorial and sectoral strategies, fixed in the national projects of the Russian Federation.

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  • Slavinskaya O.A. About the theory and methodology of public expenditure. Moscow: Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2019. 64 р.

This study is devoted to the analysis of the evolution of the interpretation in the history of economic thought of the last centuries of such an economic category as public finance, and in particular public expenditure. This paper presents an analysis of the following economic schools: Cameralism, German tradition and Italian tradition of public finance, the theory of merit goods, the theory of patronized goods. On the basis of the analyzed Baumol’s theory and the obtained results of the multifactor econometric model of public expenditures, the methodology of determining the compensatory subsidy based on the definition of income deficit for the organizations of the humanitarian sector, taking into account the specifics of cultural, scientific and educational sectors, was developed and proposed. As a result of the calculations made on the basis of the actual data, it was revealed that the theatrical organizations in some regions of the Russian Federation were underfunded, which leads to an over-inflationary increase in ticket prices.

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  • Kislitsyna O., Chubarova T. A comprehensive evaluation of health care system in Russia: the experience of composite index building. Moscow: Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2019. 69 p.

Based on an analysis of the literature, extensive statistical data and the results of sociological studies, the report proposed and tested methodology for measuring of the health care system performance in Russia both throughout the country as a whole and in the regional context. The methodology is based on the construction of a composite index - an integrated indicator that aggregates 3 main aspects of the health care system (availability, quality and effectiveness). Despite the registered limitations, this methodology allows to provide decision-makers with generalized information about the state of the healthcare system, as well as to raise public awareness about the problems of the industry.

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  • Muzychuk V.Yu. Government Failures in the Cultural Sector. M.: Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2019. 58 р.

This paper focuses on government failures in the arts and culture. The paper considers another variety of government failures such as "substitution of goals". This is a situation in which there is a substitution of officially declared goals with hidden goal-setting, aimed to implement the so-called unpopular managerial decisions or such managerial decisions for which you can report to authorities (not to society!). A suitable illustration for this variety of government failures is the reform of the public sector through the transformations in the cultural sphere. In the cultural sector government failures are added to market failures, due to the multiplier effect and the lack of developed and capable civil society institutions lead to serious losses in public welfare.

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  • Lobanov Mikhail M. The problems of development of Serbia: how to stay "on the crest of a new wave" of economic growth? Moscow: Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2019. 53 p.

Given study deals with the features of the current stage of socio-economic development of the Republic of Serbia, and its main aim is to single out internal and external factors that limit the potential for sustainable economic growth and affect the indicators of macroeconomic balance. The report examines the causes and consequences of the post-crisis transformation of the institutional environment, and also analyzes the dynamics of a wide range of socio-economic indicators, which allows defining the contours of the new economic paradigm.

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  • Pliskevich N.M. Paternalism and the processes of post-socialist transformation. Moscow: Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2019. 45 p.

This report attempts to explain why archaic forms of paternalistic relations rather than paternalistic practices typical of modern developed countries dominate in Russia in the 21st century. It shows that the reasons for this are to be found in the archaic nature of the entire institutional structure of Russian society as a system of "power-property". The way out of this system is complicated by "institutional scars," which arose as a result of previous mobilization-type breakthroughs to modernize society. Moreover, the report shows that paternalism is an organic part of relations in any society. It is based either on collectivism "from above," carried out through large, primarily state structures, or on collectivism "from below," relying on the individual initiative of citizens and various structures of civil society. A healthy society finds an organic combination of these two forms of paternalism. However, when there is a bundle "power-property," the authorities strive for monopoly control over all social processes, including paternalism. As a result, horizontal public relations are sharply weakened, which leads to the atomization of society. And the hierarchy of the system itself creates the ground for aggressive adaptive individualism. At the same time, the authorities use paternalism as a mechanism to strengthen their connection with society. This crucial cohesion for the authorities is intended to strengthen political institutions, but in the state with suppressed property relations the political institutions are deformed. As a result, the state and related forms of paternalism fall under an overwhelming burden, and this further weakens the entire institutional structure.

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  • Slutskin L.N. Modeling Causal Dependencies in Economics. Moscow: Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2019. 42 p.

It is well known that causal relations in the social sciences including economics have stochastic nature. Unlike natural sciences it is hardly possible to reproduce economic observations under the same conditions or isolate effects of the action of one factor upon the other from the rest. On the surface this fact should be the cause of considerable difficulties on the way of establishing statistically testable causal relations between two economic phenomena. We show how econometricians have step by step overcome this problem beginning with works of Fisher and Neyman and ending with the latest achievements in the field by Rubin, Pearl, Scholkopf and their colleagues. In the presentation the issues related to applications of statistical causality theory to economics are also considered. Particularly, the concept of intervention (operator "do") invented by Judea Pearl will be systematically studied. We show how interventions may be effectively used to calculate synergetic effects appearing in the architecture of Bayesian network.

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  • Yakovlev A.Y. Management institutions and mechanisms for Russian companies with state participation. Moscow: Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2019. 42 p.

The report is first within three-year planed research which the aim of the elaboration of methodological and institutional approaches to the quality improvement of management of companies with state participation in Russian economy. The report contains an analysis of the methodological and practical aspects of management of companies with state participation in Russia through the study of their current state, problems of functioning, formed management institutions and mechanisms. The relevance of this study is due to increase of activity efficiency of companies with state participation and lack of a comprehensive study that reveals the functioning of institutions and mechanisms for management of companies (joint-stock companies and limited liability companies) whose shares are in federal property and belong to the subjects of the federation (Russian regions).

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  • Kheyfets Boris A. How to modernize the Eurasian Economic Union. Moscow: Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2019. 45 p.

The report analyzes the five-year period for the implementation of the Treaty on the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) and highlights the main problems of its development at the present stage. Among them, external pressure on the EAEU from major economic agents (China, USA) and regional economic partnerships (European Union), which leads to erosion of the Eurasian integration processes. Internal disintegration factors are the lack of tangible progress in the formation of common sectoral markets, the rapid growth of new non-tariff barriers and exceptions to the general rules of trade, the increase in the number of trade and currency conflicts. A serious problem is the weakening of the potential of Russia as a driver of economic integration in the EAEU. In this regard, the report raises the question of a significant adjustment of the model of integration in the EAEU. New initiatives and actions are proposed, which should give a tangible effect on the existence of the EAEU for the population and business.

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  • Sheynin Eduard Ya. Investment Process in Central and Eastern Europe. Moscow: Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2019. 48 p.

Actuality of research is determined by the fact that difficult tasks of ensuring sustainable economic growth face the Central and Eastern European countries. Their solution to no small degree depends on the rate of increase of capital investment, the higher investment rates. In the paper the features of investment process and investment policy of the Central and Eastern European countries in conditions of geopolitical situation on the European continent have been investigated. The scientific analysis of recourse possibilities as well as of conditions for development of investment process in the region countries and the sources, on which it leans has been carried out; the role of investment in the economic growth has been evaluated. The place of foreign investment in the economy has been shown. In the study of specificities of investment process in the Central and Eastern European countries analytical and statistical materials have been used, and the conclusions have been formulated.

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  • Orekhovsky P.A. Cognitive Structures and Russian Reforms. Moscow: Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2019. 47 p.

The structure of the cognitiveness is a philosophical category, a concept related to a paradigm and / or an episteme. Its application allows us to characterize the ways in which economic reality is perceived by both economic schools and the community of economists as a whole. Structures of the cognitiveness change from revolution to stagnation, which is fixed in changes in colloquial practices (discourses). That contradicts the idea of a cumulative growth of economic knowledge. Understanding the causes, progress and results of economic reforms in the categories of the cognitiveness has its advantages and disadvantages. The paper presents examples of such an approach as applied to the analysis of the transition of the Russian health care system to insurance medicine, retrospectives of the causes and course of the collapse of the USSR, modern reforms in Russian education and science. The pluralism of the postmodern era’s realities is demonstrated, a combination of symbolic order and fantasy, both in relation to reform projects (insurance medicine, education reform) and in the past (the economic version of the collapse of the Soviet oil empire against the political crisis in a socialist country).

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  • Orlik I., Knyazev Yu. Political and Economic Differentiation of Central-Eastern Europe. Moscow: Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2019. 47 p.

The report discloses the processes of political and economic differentiation among countries of Central-Eastern Europe, peculiarities of their internal and external policy, growing contradictions within the European Union. On the background of new trends in the European Union policy under changing geopolitical situation and breaking general international stability the authors reveal different positions of CEE States upon a number of acute foreign policy problems. The divergence of main macroeconomic indexes which testify maintaining heterogeneity of this region countries from social-economic and political standpoint is showed The overall analyses of new experts appraisements and statistics as well as conclusions and recommendations for Russia foreign policy makes the research actual.

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  • Kapelyushnikov R.I. Population Aging Phenomenon: Economic Effects. Moscow: Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2019. 50 p.

Population aging is a process that has already embraced most of the countries of the world and that with acceleration will go on during the whole of the 21st century. The aim of the work is to present the widest possible range of economic effects, caused by the aging of the population, including those not directly related to the state policy. It describes the basic mechanism of interaction between demographic and macroeconomic variables, showing how population aging is related to such key factors as per capita consumption, employment, productivity and capital-labor ratio, wages and income from capital, investments and savings. Additionally, the impact of population aging on labor supply, human capital accumulation, technological progress, real percentage (return on capital), and inflation is analyzed.

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  • Knyazev Yu. Individualism and Collectivism in Contemporary Economy. Moscow: Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2019. 45 p.

The report exposes the author’s views upon correlation between individualism and collectivism in contemporary economy. The point of departure is recognition of human person dual nature which combines two sources – individualism and collectivism. After a short survey of some economists’ views showing evolution in comprehension of methodological individualism and this fundamental principle vulnerability, next parts characterize individual and social interests as well as private and public goods. Special attention is paid to the role of State as the most important institution which greatly influences on market and leads to appearance of social regulated market economy existing in most developed and civilized countries. The report’s final part lights the way for proving of necessity and possibility of complex planning in Russian market economy. There are some conclusions related to possible ways of renewal of economics due to the author’s understanding of methodological dualism.

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  • Koshovets O.B. Making Progress Gorizontally: Economics Between Construction of Reality and Techno-Science. Moscow: Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2019. 47 p.

Within the broader context of the discussion on where modern economics is moving I consider the progress of economic knowledge (modeling) and particularly address the recent attempt of Dany Rodrik to promote the idea that the discipline makes progress horizontally. Proceeding from the thesis that “horizontal progress” is rather an attempt to describe the current practice of economic knowledge producing, and to legitimate it as goals of economics development in academic and public discourses, I discuss the implicit assumptions underlying this idea, and trajectory of economic knowledge advance it suggests. Further I analyze important changes in the practice of economic knowledge production and the reception of these changes by economists. It can be described as a fundamental shift from science, theory and explanation of reality to craft, tools and the construction of reality. Then I examine methodically the key ontological and epistemological features of economic knowledge, which compel economics to develop extensively following the path of “economic imperialism”. In conclusion, I raise the questions of whether economics is a science from the standpoint of epistemology or it is a more complex trans-epistemic phenomenon, and what is crucial for its current development specifically in the context of the fundamental transformation that science as an “epistemological enterprise” and social institution is undergoing.

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  • Vardomsky L.B., Turaeva M.O. Development of the Post-Soviet Transport Corridors in Terms of Contemporary Geopolitical and Economic Challenges. Moscow: Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2018. 66 p.

The report deals with the international transport corridors (ITC) as the distinctive characteristic of regionalization and globalization of the world economy. The factors of ITC’s formation in the post-soviet space are analyzed. A special emphasis has made on transcontinental transit routes’ development and their in the Eurasian integration. As well, China’s role in the development of the EEU countries’ transit position is studied. Particular attention paid to the ITC and transit in terms of Russia’s economic development.

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  • Glinkina S.P.,Kulikova N.V., Turayeva M.O., Golubkin A.V., Yakovlev A.A. The China Factor in the Development of the Russian "Neighborhood Belt": Lessons for Russia. Moscow: Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2018. 66 p.

This report examines traditional and new tools that are increasingly being used by the People’s Republic of China in the countries of the Russian neighborhood belt to promote the large-scale "One Belt - One Road" integration initiative. The effects of Chinese economic expansion in the post-socialist countries of Central Asia and Central- Eastern Europe are estimated. Based on the analysis, recommendations are given on improving the forms and mechanisms of cooperation between Russia and China and with the countries of the "neighborhood belt", taking into account the growth of the Chinese economic presence in the region.

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  • Odintsova A., Valentik O. Formation of the Strategic Planning System in the Municipal Link of Public Government. Moscow: Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2018. 40 p.

The report focuses on the need of organic inclusion of municipal government into the unified hierarchy of strategic planning in the country. Acting versions of the 131st Federal law “On general principles of organization of local self-government” and the 172d Federal law “On strategic planning” don’t provide clear framework for the solution of this task. Besides, the practical inclusion of municipal government into the unified hierarchy of strategic planning meets serious economic obstacles, the main of which is connected with the negative situation in the system of local finance. The paper proves the necessity of systemic approach to solving problems, related to the integration of municipal government into the unified vertical of strategic planning in the country on the basis of legal innovations in the legislation on strategic planning and local self-government as well as measures towards strengthening the fiscal basis of Russian local self-government.

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  • Vernikov A. Malfunction of an Imported Institution: The Case of Deposit Insurance in Russia. Moscow: Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2018. 44 p.

The paper explores the reasons why the imported institution of deposit insurance (DI) malfunctions in Russia. Its malfunction goes beyond the well-studied phenomenon of moral hazard. One possible reason is misuse of institution by its creators and/or its capture by interested parties. Another possibility is the poor timing of DI implementation, prior to a revamp of the banking industry. The third possible reason is that DI was a misfit in the Russian institutional setup. I regard the local DI system as in institutional trap. Institutions of paternalism and redistribution need to be complemented by market discipline, self-regulation and personal responsibility.

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  • Where is Current Economics Moving? Moscow: Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2018. 55 p.

This publication includes two reports on a general theme: "Where is current economics moving?". In R. Kape liushnikov's paper "On current state of economics: subjective semi-sociological observations" recent sociological and epistemological trends in the evolution of economics as a scientific enterprise and as a social institution are analyzed and its current state and further perspectives are trying to evaluate. A. Libman's paper "Empirical research in the economy: "revolution of authenticity?” analyzes the main changes in the practice of empirical economic research of the last decades – the so-called “credibility revolution" in econometrics.

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  • Voyekov M.I., Gorodetsky A.E., Grinberg R.S. The Economic Nature of the State a New Perspective. Moscow: Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2018. 54 p.

The report discusses the problems of the evolution of the place and role of the state in the market economy. The rooting of the state into the economic life of the society over the past hundred years was impetuous. Important is the question of what are the costs of increasing the volume of state activity and to what extent society is ready to put up with them. Naturally, there is a need to develop a new theory of state participation in the economy of contemporary society. And this purpose, which was set for itself by The Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences (the state assignment on the subject "The Economic Theory of the Contemporary State"), is served by the following text below. The most important thesis of the report is the provision on the transformation of the contemporary state from the subject of market space, in fact, to its organizer (playmaker), which puts forward special requirements for the theory, which is being developed. At the same time, an interdisciplinary approach to the study of the issue is used (philosophy, sociology, political science, psychology, culturology, ets.).

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  • Kheyfets Boris A. Metamorphosis of Economic Globalization. Moscow: Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2018. 41 p.

The paper considers the features of a new stage of globalization. It is shown that the slowing down of globalization processes is temporary, it concerns traditional assets, while the interstate flows of new assets triggered by the 4th industrial revolution are fundamentally strengthened. The increased tendencies towards regionalization and transregionalization, which stimulate all states to remove barriers to trade and investment and improve the investment climate, is not an obstacle to globalization. A powerful driver of the modern stage of globalization is informal globalization, or “globalization from below,” which is connected with the activity of citizens. The number of foreign tourist trips, studying and working abroad, and purchases abroad via the Internet is growing. Unlike the previous stage of globalization of production, this will be a stage of globalization of consumption, when the common economic spaces will gradually be formed without state borders and without the participation of supranational formal institutions.

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